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The Head, Heart and Hand Concept

Curriculum in Indonesia is, more or less, based on Asy’ari concept of 3 Hs (head, heart, hand) but the terms are changed into Cognitive (head, or intellectual thinking), Affective (heart, or social emotion). Psychomotor, on the other hand, cannot be defined as the concept of hand because, according to Asy’ari, hand means producing or creating.

The essence of the concept hand is to generate students to create or produce as Bloom proposed it in his taxonomy as the last stage in learning. It is incomplete to suggest that the concept hand is learning by doing or activities which require students to move or use their muscles. The term psychomotor is not similar to the concept of hand as suggested by Syafii’s view but the psychometric activities – does indeed – derive to a handful students.

However, the concept hand is also implemented in our current curriculum. Thus, even though we use different terms, or defined slightly different, the initial concepts are kept the same – we also find the 3 Hs concepts in our previous curriculum, too.

The concept Head can simply be seen in our current curriculum as the activities of teaching - learning processes. In fact, the concept is expended more; it means that the students are not only expected to understand and comprehend the subjects but also analyzing the subjects, or simply put, the higher order thinking (hot). In implementing the concept head, todays teachers are so well-equipped on giving students to be able to have the capability of hot. Thus, the concept head - in our current curriculum - is well implemented.


Back in the day when Asy’ari was implementing the 3H concepts, the concept heart was merely on being good students or good citizens. In present-day, the students are expected to be more than good-hearted individuals, they are familiarized to be tolerant, good team worker, have compassion and sympathy, etc.

Moreover, the concept heart implies the questions such as what should students do after acquiring the knowledge, whether to do virtuous or harmful acts, or just to keep the good knowledge.

The concept heart is developed for every school level in Indonesia. We can clearly see that every student, starting from elementary to high school, is exposed to the Syafii’s concept of heart.

As presented above that the concept of hand is creating or producing, it is observable that the concept is well-organized and clearly be seen in vocational schools. Students are well-prepared to handful activities that make them skilled in creating useful products.


However, we cannot say that other schools – non vocational schools – do not deliver the hand concept in their teaching - learning activities. The product can be as simple as autobiography, essays, ideas for drama performance etc. Thus, the conclusion is that all three concepts of Asy’ari (Head, Heart and hand) are implemented in our current curriculum.

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